The horror that unfolded on January 6, as I watched CNN’s report showed a frenzied mob, who had taken over the Capitol Building in Washington, D.C, and left me motionless and anxious. This was the culmination of a rally which was fueled by delusional claims of then President Donald J. Trump and others, that the election was rigged, stolen and urged them to descend on Washington to take back the election from President-elect Biden. They were told that Vice President Pence was a traitor for going along with the seemingly transparent election results and planning to swear in Senator Joe Biden as the next President. The past-President led his base into believing that Vice President Pence and many others who had the authority to control the reported results, could allow him to return to office for another four years if they wanted to.  Eventually, these misinformed, easily influenced people who were so disappointed that their candidate had lost the election, became so incensed that they were prepared to take any action necessary when they arrived at the Capitol Building. Some had prepared themselves for this eventualit well in advance of descending on the Capitol and were armed for the occasion, as we later learned. One of my friends, who is a supporter defended the actions that ensued as a “mild protest, but certainly not an insurrection.    

As I waited and watched, checking with other channels to be sure that I was not being misled by a channel that is sometimes accused of being non partisan, I was shocked beyond belief at the dishonor shown by other channels to those who were appointed to maintain law and order at the Capitol. I anticipated help would arrive soon from a Branch of our Military Forces to rescue our Parliamentarians and bring an end to the uprising, but nothing happened for more than an hour. 

Our Armed Forces, who are so well trained and capable that they’re deployed at the behest of our Allies to neutralize threats in other countries and provide humanitarian assistance by occupying other countries during emergencies were noticeably missing.  And on this day, in spite of the helicopters and drones flying overhead, not to mention several levels of security that surrounded the Capitol Building, there was no help readily available to quell the insurrection.  Local police were totally overwhelmed by these protestors (“Patriots” as QAnon chose to call themselves) turned anarchists for hours. 

       We all know the outcome – five people including police died, some were injured; threats were made against the life of our Vice President, The Speaker of the House-Nancy Pelosi and many of our elected officials who serve and were present at the Capitol that day. Several police suffered severe physical and psychological trauma and a historic building, which represents so much to the people of this great country, was willfully destroyed and defaced. There will be long lasting scars, physical and emotional that many who survived, will live with for the rest of their lives.  

     Upon reflection I was reminded that at the age of 16, I was living in a developing nation that found itself in somewhat, similar chaos.  A breakdown in law & order resulting from the spread of political propaganda and the ruling party’s failure to maintain economic stability resulted in a total lockdown of government offices after the government failed to function.  Women were raped, shootings, looting and robberies followed.  This was still a British colony, and we were fortunate to have the British Government to act as a neutral agent and provide protection with its armed forces. Calm was restored by the British after a few days. 

One question which remains indelibly in my mind is whether the January 6 events could have been avoided?  How could a Republic –so powerful, a model of democracy with military strength that surpasses that of most developed countries with, fail to protect its citizens in 2021 from an insurrection when there were so many threats by Trump loyalists?  Why were those memes on social media ignored? 

Perhaps it is instructive to note that political dissent can result in chaos in developing as well as developed nations, and we will have to learn that free speech must be used with extreme caution.

Looking forward, a new administration brings a new approach to Government, one that offers more diversity, more opportunities for people of different beliefs to participate.  I like many others am optimistic that we can all unite and set an example to the world, that Americans can still be leaders of a true democracy.

What do you think?


In keeping with my efforts to monitor the influences climate change is having on our lives, a look at its’ impact globally, shows manifestations in various countries and the lessons that we can learn in an effort to rein in some of these destructive practices. If we are to prevent sea-level rise and reduce the destruction to our environment, we need to take proactive measures now, based on the evidence we have before us.

One example, as exemplified in this recent report, shows that climate change was responsible for Hurricane Maria’s devastation in Puerto Rico. The warm air currents produced by global warming are producing more severe storms as years progress.

Another example exists in Antartica, which is fast becoming a travel destination for nature lovers and explorers.

Photo by Matthis Volquardsen on

The President of the U.S after proposing to drill for oil off the coast of Florida has granted an exemption to Florida.

Feel free to leave polite comments.

Pause to Remember

Looking out at the Canal flowing past my home, I can see the water as it moves steadily   upstream, taking with it fallen branches and debris captured along the way. 


Currently there are no pleasure craft, water sport enthusiasts on boogie boards, kayaks or rowboats; not even the ducks who occasionally risk a ride in these precariously overcrowded waters, for a swim upstream with the larger boats. 

On the stroke of the hour, all the large boats will huddle under the bridge when it’s raised, for access to the Intracoastal waters traveling out to the ocean.  At present all of this activity is temporarily at a standstill, obscured by thoughts which occupy my mind.  Thoughts of someone I didn’t expect to lose so suddenly after a period of extreme suffering and terminal illness.              

How can we cope when confronted with sudden death?

The emotions that follow the loss of a loved one are difficult to accept. But the chaos that results from trying to rationalize an untimely, in this case sudden death just seems to make the grieving more unbearable.  Much has been written about the spiritual and religious aspects at the end of life, with the intent of bringing comfort to those left behind to mourn and deal with the memories but move forward with our loneliness.  In the end, all we can be sure of, is that our loved one will never return and we are overcome with unconsolable grief and memories of the times that we shared together. 

 In my case these are happy memories, filled with love, sincere generosity, humor, caring, trust and adventure.  Some were painful for both of us, but we shared them and together we walked that road as well. Looking back, I find no regrets and I’m grateful for the friendship that we had.  Perhaps this is all I can ask! 

And so, the water continues to flow ——-giving me the choice to move forward as it makes its way along the Intracoastal, taking the large boats with it—–or to stay behind and ponder our conversations, our happy memories filled with the funny, caring and sometimes outrageous situations we sometimes encountered.  I decide to linger here a while longer, trying to relive one last time, some of those moments.   For me, they are some of the happiest I will ever know.

Eventually,  I will have to let go of them and move forward with the water, realizing that I can’t return to the past. The past will recall her suffering and that is a chapter I would want to help her close.

The lovable Shorebirds

I was looking forward to retirement for several reasons, chief among these being the fact that now I would be able to sleep after the sun came up. For so many years, I awoke well before dawn and watched the sun over my shoulder, as it rose over the horizon in my rearview mirror.  I had to content myself with brief moments of beautiful sunlight as I pulled into the parking lot at work.  This was the only solution to avoid turning a forty-five minute commute into an hour and a half (or longer) bumper-to-bumper, nail biting,  experience that could result in anxiety and a tension hangover that lasted for hours.

Early morning meetings were usually brutal, and those days required special armor. When it snowed overnight, there was no choice but to wait for the snow plough to come along or there could be several accidents, as some drivers would make a bet that Rt.78 on the Jersey roadmap was the newly-designated Autobahn, and tires and brakes were selectively winterized. (You mean cars require maintenance?). Some tension was an  inevitable hazard of the job.


With total abandon, I prepared myself for my new lifestyle.  Turned my alarm off and went to bed contentedly happy with an anticipatory sleep-in plan.   Unfortunately, that idea was short lived.  At about 5:30 a.m. a bird who built her nest under the eaves of my bedroom roof, decided to give her young ones a wakeup call.  Her staccato tu-tu chirps were answered by their collective high-pitched squeaks.  As adorable as they sounded, I knew that sleep was no longer an option.

I tried to distinguish from the sounds of their individual squeaks,  how many babies there were.  I became magically hypnotized.  It was so much like listening to an orchestra and trying to figure out when the violins would harmonize with the organ or the harp  would add another dimension.  I listened transfixed, until I could no longer discern the differences in their squeaky chirps.  Eventually, their screeching faded and I fell right back into a deep slumber, caressed by their waning birdsong,  which I later learned was a nurturing swallowtail and her young ones.

Here is a video of some birds you might enjoy identifying :


My Favorite Greeting

The ancient Chinese would be amazed at how much their original tradition- the New Year’s good will event of sending messages to ward off the wild beast called Nien-  has evolved into what we now know as e-cards. “Nien” was a monster who attacked and killed villagers at the end of each year and the word “nien” was attributed the meaning “year” in Chinese.

Over the years,  the Germans, in the mid 1400s printed expensive New Year greetings and then used paper handmade valentines to exchange Valentine’s Day greetings.  In 1843, Sir Henry Cole of the famous British poetry (Ole King Cole), invented the first Christmas greeting card during Victorian times. His purpose was for those who were financially able to spread word of charitable endeavors through the use of Christmas cards, which were at that time painted individually and hand delivered, making them very expensive to acquire.

Cole became a Commissioner of the Victoria & Albert Museum and used a surplus of money for the improvement of art education and science in the UK.  With so many contacts to send cards to each year, his Christmas  list became unmanageable and it was only helped by the introduction of the postage stamp in 1840 and the advances that were made in the printing press.

Fast forward to today, when Hallmark claims $7 billion annually in retail sales.  It seems that most people prefer to send an e-card online rather than resort to the traditional cards, which require time to purchase, time to maintain street addresses, time to stand on line in the post office to mail them if the postage varies, and then factor in enough time for the card to arrive at its destination for the Holiday.

Now that our culture’s emphasis is on immediate gratification, the internet affords us a way to accomplish all of these tasks in a relatively short time, and to bypass this supply chain, creating a quiet retail revolution of the card business. One that allows more customization since personal pictures can be manipulated into computer graphics to produce the images we want or we can choose from a wide selection of choices online.

We have watched as those who haven’t committed to the new media fell behind, either because of illness or the restrictions of age. Whether it is their lack of interest in computers or their love of the sentimentality that accompanied the old tradition, they will tell you that they “hate looking at a greeting card on a screen” and there is some merit to the fact that there was an element of surprise in receiving a card from a loved one in the mail.  If that person hadn’t been in touch for some time then the card conveyed happy memories, especially if a photo was enclosed adding context to extended relatives in their new environment.

Of course, the physical card could be used as a decorative item afterwards, hung as a garland on the chimney or the Christmas tree.  So these memories lingered where they were visible for a season before they were gone and were not as fleeting as they are now. While the creativity that goes into the design of e-cards defy the senses and improve every year, we only see them when we log on to our computers.

Call me nostalgic! But I will miss those days.  Especially the cards that came from my grandkids.  Freehand drawings of hearts and first letters saying “I love you Grandma!”  Perhaps we’ll be able to one day see a slide show of all the beautiful e-card designs that are now being created, put to music.  I bet somewhere, someone is already coding a program that does exactly this.


PARIS -City of good karma

If you visited Paris in 1999 you could have counted yourself among the 83 million tourists who visited that year, and experienced the splendor of its elegant architecture, history and art.

While you dined at the many outdoor cafes, you may have been fortunate enough to find, laying on a table or on the floor –  an octagonal-shaped Seiko ladies watch, which was inadvertently dropped by its owner.  Chances are, after checking around with those nearby, you decided that since it was a lost item and there was only a slight probability that its owner would return to claim it.   You may then have been tempted to say nothing about the item, because acquiring it yourself as a memento of your visit would be a good idea.  But because of its unique shape and the fact that it looked fairly new at that time,  you thought it best to do the honorable thing and turn it over to its rightful owner.

Flashback to the following day, when I happened to be visiting in Paris – one of the thousands who come each day to satisfy a once in a lifetime dream of seeing the Eiffel Tower.  Suddenly, the voice of a gentleman riding a scooter, calls out to get my attention as I leave the Eiffel Tower and head to a restaurant for dinner.

“Madame,” he shouts excitedly ” you left your watch at the restaurant where you dined last night.”  Turning to acknowledge him, I can recall our friendly greeting the previous night and stop for a chat.  This warm French gentleman goes on to remind myself and my partner of the location and name of the cafe where we met the night before.  Phone numbers are exchanged with the intent of getting together again and we make our way back to the cafe where we were the night before.

It was a relief to find the watch, which I had missed earlier in the day, but just assumed that I had temporarily misplaced in the hotel room. Our acquaintance was never heard from again, although we made several attempts to find and reward him.

That watch meant as much to me then as it does to this day.  Not only was it a reward earned for superior job performance, but the significance of finding it after having misplaced it in a city as vast as Paris is a stark phenomenon to me.  The coincidence of having a stranger find me among so many tourists in such a dynamic city speaks to the higher order of life and the good karma that I felt in wonderful Paris and the good nature of people.  Not only should it be called the City of Light. Perhaps it should be the City of Good People.



Rising Sea Levels

My home is located on a Canal which feeds into the Intracoastal Waterway.  The Intracoastal is 3000mi long and runs inland along the Atlantic coast of the U.S., from Boston MA in the north, ending in Texas, where the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico meet.

Lately, the change in the water mark on the seawall that I observe from my home, has risen to new levels at high tide.  I wouldn’t venture a guess as to how high, but to confirm the severity of the problem, I wanted to share this article that I came across recently on the website, on April 4, 2017.

Just down the coast from Donald Trump’s weekend retreat, the residents and businesses of south Florida are experiencing regular episodes of water in the streets. In the battle against rising seas, the region – which has more to lose than almost anywhere else in the world – is becoming ground zero.

The first time my father’s basement flooded, it was shortly after he moved in. The building was an ocean-front high-rise in a small city north of Miami called Sunny Isles Beach. The marble lobby had a waterfall that never stopped running; crisp-shirted valets parked your car for you. For the residents who lived in the more lavish flats, these cars were often BMWs and Mercedes. But no matter their value, the cars all wound up in the same place: the basement.

When I called, I’d ask my dad how the building was doing. “The basement flooded again a couple weeks ago,” he’d sometimes say. Or: “It’s getting worse.” It’s not only his building: he’s also driven through a foot of water on a main road a couple of towns over and is used to tiptoeing around pools in the local supermarket’s car park.

Ask nearly anyone in the Miami area about flooding and they’ll have an anecdote to share. Many will also tell you that it’s happening more and more frequently. The data backs them up.

It’s easy to think that the only communities suffering from sea level rise are far-flung and remote. And while places like the Solomon Islands and Kiribati are indeed facing particularly dramatic challenges, they aren’t the only ones being forced to grapple with the issue. Sea levels are rising around the world, and in the US, south Florida is ground zero – as much for the adaptation strategies it is attempting as for the risk that it bears.

Florida State Road A1A runs the entire length of Florida along the ocean

Florida State Road A1A runs the entire length of Florida along the ocean, making it vulnerable to flooding – as shown here in Fort Lauderdale in 2013 (Credit: Alamy)

One reason is that water levels here are rising especially quickly. The most frequently-used range of estimates puts the likely range between 15-25cm (6-10in) above 1992 levels by 2030, and 79-155cm (31-61in) by 2100. With tides higher than they have been in decades – and far higher than when this swampy, tropical corner of the US began to be drained and built on a century ago – many of south Florida’s drainage systems and seawalls are no longer enough. That means not only more flooding, but challenges for the infrastructure that residents depend on every day, from septic tanks to wells. “The consequences of sea level rise are going to occur way before the high tide reaches your doorstep,” says William Sweet, an oceanographer at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

The flooding would be a challenge for any community, but it poses particular risks here. One recent report estimated that Miami has the most to lose in terms of financial assets of any coastal city in the world, just above Guangzhou, China and New York City. This 120-mile (193km) corridor running up the coast from Homestead to Jupiter – taking in major cities like Miami, Fort Lauderdale and West Palm Beach – is the eighth most populous metropolitan area in the US. It’s also booming. In 2015, the US Census Bureau found that the population of all three counties here was growing – along with the rest of Florida – at around 8%, roughly twice the pace of the US average. Recent studies have shown that Florida has more residents at risk from climate change than any other US state.

Along with new developments, south Florida is home to historic properties

Along with new developments, south Florida is home to historic properties which are at risk, as in the Art Deco district of Miami Beach (Credit: Amanda Ruggeri)

It has more property at risk, too. In Miami-Dade County, developers had 1.6 million sq ft (149,000 sq m) of office space and 1.8 million of retail space under construction in the second quarter of 2016 alone. Sunny Isles Beach, home to 20,300 people, has eight high-rise buildings under construction; swing a seagull in the air, and you’ll hit a crane. As you might imagine, the value of development in this sun-soaked part of the country is high, too. Property in Sunny Isles alone is now worth more than $10 billion. Many of the wealthiest people in the US reside in Florida, including 40 billionaires on the Forbes 400 list of richest Americans; on a recent week, the most expensive real estate listing in the US was a $54 million mansion in Palm Beach.

Despite his history of referring to climate change as a “hoax” and his recent rollback of emissions-slashing initiatives, President Donald Trump is one of these property owners with a stake in the issue. The president frequently visits his Mar-a-Lago estate in Palm Beach, 75 miles (121km) north of Miami, which is itself an area experiencing flooding from high tides. There also are six Trump-branded residential buildings in Sunny Isles, one of which still provides the president with income, and a Trump-branded condominium complex in Hollywood.

Sunny Isles Beach is home to $10 billion in property

Sunny Isles Beach is home to $10 billion in property, including six Trump-branded buildings (Credit: Alamy)

Look beyond all the glass and steel, though, and – despite the federal government’s sidelining of the issue – there’s another thrum of activity. It’s the wastewater treatment plant constructing new buildings five feet higher than the old ones. The 105 miles (169km) of roads being raised in Miami Beach. The new shopping mall built with flood gates. The 116 tidal valves installed in Fort Lauderdale. The seawalls being raised and repaired. And the worried conversations between more and more residents every year about what the sea-rise models predict – and what to do about it.

The communities aren’t short of solutions. “Nobody’s doing better adaptation work in the country than south Florida,” says Daniel Kreeger, executive director of the nonprofit Association of Climate Change Officers. But the question isn’t whether this work will save every community: it won’t. Even those tasked with making their cities resilient admit that, at some point in the future, certain areas here will no longer be “viable” places to live. Rather, the challenge is to do enough to ensure that the economy as a whole continues to thrive and that tourists still come to enjoy the sun, sand – and swelling sea.

Signs like these have become ubiquitous in Miami Beach

Signs like these have become ubiquitous in Miami Beach, where officials are determined to fight flooding and have launched a multi-pronged plan (Credit: Amanda Ruggeri)

It’s a challenge that many officials and experts are determined to meet. Getting there, though, requires a shift in how everyone from mayors to taxpayers, insurers to engineers, property developers to urban planners thinks about their communities – and the everyday decisions that shape them. The eyes of the world are on them: if one of the richest communities on the planet can’t step up, what hope is there for everyone else?

“If the science is correct on this – which it is going to be – the question is, ‘How extreme are the implications?’” says Kreeger. “We are literally going to have to rewrite how businesses function, and how cities are designed. Everything’s going to change. And that’s particularly going to be exacerbated in coastal communities…………………… You’d look around and say ‘Shoot, what’s that going to affect?’

“And the answer is: it affects everything.”

Sea level rise is global. But due to a variety of factors – including, for this part of the Atlantic coast, a likely weakening of the Gulf Stream, itself potentially a result of the melting of Greenland’s ice caps – south Floridians are feeling the effects more than many others. While there has been a mean rise of a little more than 3mm per year worldwide since the 1990s, in the last decade, the NOAA Virginia Key tide gauge just south of Miami Beach has measured a 9mm rise annually.

That may not sound like much. But as an average, it doesn’t tell the whole story of what residents see – including more extreme events like king tides (extremely high tides), which have been getting dramatically higher. What’s more, when you’re talking about places like Miami Beach – where, as chief resiliency officer Susanne Torriente jokes, the elevation ranges between “flat and flatter” – every millimetre counts. Most of Miami Beach’s built environment sits at an elevation of 60-120cm (2-6ft). And across the region, underground infrastructure – like aquifers or septic tanks – lies even closer to the water table.

When every foot of elevation matters

When every foot of elevation matters, even raising a driveway – as the owners of this Fort Lauderdale property have done – can help keep property dry (Credit: Amanda Ruggeri)

Not only are sea levels rising, but the pace seems to be accelerating. That’s been noted before – but what it means for south Florida was only recently brought home in a University of Miami study. “After 2006, sea level rose faster than before – and much faster than the global rate,” says the lead author Shimon Wdowinski, who is now with Miami’s Florida International University. From 3mm per year from 1998 to 2005, the rise off Miami Beach tripled to that 9mm rate from 2006.

An uptick also happened between the 1930s and 1950s, says Wdowinski, making some question whether this is a similar oscillation. But that’s probably wishful thinking. “It’s not necessarily what we see now. This warming of the planet has been growing for a while,” he says. “It’s probably a different process than what happened 60 years ago.”

Miami Beach is a narrow barrier island

Like other popular areas including Sunny Isles and Hollywood Beach, Miami Beach is a narrow barrier island with the ocean on one side (Credit: Alamy)

“Can we definitely say it’s the ocean warming?” says Sweet, who has authored several sea-level rise studies. “No. But is it indicative of what we’d expect to see? Yes.”

One graph compiled in 2015 by the Southeast Florida Regional Climate Change Compact, a non-partisan initiative that collates expertise and coordinates efforts across Broward, Miami-Dade, Monroe and Palm Beach counties, is especially revealing (see below). At the bottom is a dotted green line, which rises slowly. Before you get optimistic, the footnote is firm: “This scenario would require significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions in order to be plausible and does not reflect current emissions trends.” More probable is the range in the middle, shaded blue, which shows that a 6-10in (15-25cm) rise above 1992 levels is likely by 2030. At the top, the orange line is more severe still, going off the chart – to 81 inches (206cm) – by the end of the century.

This oft-used range of estimates puts a 6-10in rise by 2030 as a likely scenario

This oft-used range of estimates puts a 6-10in rise by 2030 as a likely scenario (Credit: Southeast Florida Regional Climate Change Compact)

But as more data comes in, even the worst-case estimates may turn out to be too low: for example, researchers recently discovered that ice is melting more rapidly than expected from both Antarctica and Greenland, plus gained a better understanding of how melting ice sheets actually affect sea-level rise. “The unlikely scenarios are now, all of a sudden, becoming more probable than they once were thought to be,” says Sweet.

The most dramatic impacts may not be felt for 50 or 100 years. But coastal communities are already experiencing more storms and extremely high tides known as king tides. In the same study, Wdowinski found there were a total of 16 flood events in Miami Beach from 1998 to 2005. From 2006 to 2013, there were 33.

Although the timing of king tides results from the positions of the Sun, Moon and Earth, rising seas heighten their effect. At extreme high tides, water levels have surged to an inch below the Intracoastal Waterway, says Jennifer Jurado, Broward County’s chief resiliency officer. “Once that’s breached, you’re open to the ocean – the supply of water is endless. The system is really at capacity. These are flood conditions, even with just the high tide and supermoon… You see men in business suits trying to trudge through water.”

Taken in 2012, before Miami Beach’s current initiatives

Taken in 2012, before Miami Beach’s current initiatives, this photograph shows one of the city’s sidewalks during a flood (Credit: Alamy)

Even without floods, the rising water table affects everything. The cities here are built on porous limestone. The water doesn’t just come over seawalls; it seeps up from beneath the streets. Nearly 90% of the drinking water in south Florida comes from aquifers, and these are finding their fresh water pushed further and further inland as the salt water exerts more and more pressure. Take Hallandale Beach, a small city of just under 40,000 residents. Saltwater already has breached five of the eight freshwater wells that the city draws from, says Vice Mayor Keith London. And around a quarter of Miami-Dade residents use septic tanks. If these don’t remain above the water table, the result could be thoroughly unpleasant.

Rising sea levels also create a potential problem for Florida’s beaches

Rising sea levels also create a potential problem for Florida’s beaches (Credit: Amanda Ruggeri)

Another issue is beach erosion. Florida’s sand may be one of its biggest draws for tourist dollars, but it, too, is vulnerable: though sand never stays put, rising sea levels and worsening storms mean the need to replenish is intensifying. A massive town-by-town project is currently underway; Miami Beach (which, famously, was manmade from the start) just wrapped up its 3,000ft (914m) section, to the tune of $11.9 million.

Of course, another part of the problem is that south Florida is built on a swamp. “The only reason we live here is we learned how to drain it, we learned how to kill mosquitos, and we created air conditioning,” says Jim Murley, chief resilience officer for Miami-Dade County. Residents cut canals to drain inland areas, using the fill to raise the land and build properties. These canals are now open doors for tidal flooding and storm surge. They also cut down mangrove forests and levelled sand dunes – both natural barriers to flooding.

“We’ve done a lot of things that, in retrospect, we would have done differently, knowing what we know now.” *

That’s the bad news. But there’s good news, says Gassman, whose no-nonsense demeanour and doctorate in marine biology (with a focus on coastal ecosystems) makes her particularly convincing. “That’s all if nothing changes. I think that’s another thing that the public doesn’t necessarily understand: the predictions that they’re hearing, time and time again, are if we do nothing. But we’re not doing nothing.”

That’s point one. Point two is that the topography of the area isn’t quite what you’d expect. She brings out a map of Fort Lauderdale dotted with squares of purple and orange. Purple means an area is likely to be underwater at 2ft (61cm) of sea level rise; orange means it’s possible. A surprisingly small amount of the map is splashed with colour. And the at-risk areas – which are mostly by the bay, not the ocean – aren’t where you might think. “It’s not the whole city,” she says. “While there are problems in some areas, we’ll have to adjust, but these areas are not in places you’d expect – and we’ll have time to address some of these issues.”

Fort Lauderdale’s canals make some of its neighbourhoods especially vulnerable

Fort Lauderdale’s canals make some of its neighbourhoods especially vulnerable (Credit: Alamy)

Not every community might be so lucky. Play the inundation game with Noaa’s perversely addictive mapping tool in Hollywood, just 10 miles (16km) south of Fort Lauderdale, and you’ll find that the same 2ft (61cm) rise could put streets and most properties of an entire square-mile swathe underwater – not insignificant for a city measuring just 30 sq miles (78 sq km). (Hollywood also has its own intervention programme underway, including the installation of 18 flap gates to keep seawater from coming up through the drainage system). Still, it’s a good reminder that the problem, as overwhelming as it seems, can be broken down into smaller pieces.

During king tides, the water has come up to the steps

During king tides, the water has come up to the steps of Fort Lauderdale’s nearly 125-year-old Stranahan House, shown here (Credit: Amanda Ruggeri)

“See, those cars are disappearing from view,” she says, pointing to the dip in the road in front of us. We turn onto Isle of Capri Drive. “Look what’s happening. Look how far I’m going to go down. This area floods all the time.”

For both Fort Lauderdale and other communities across south Florida, the main problem is drainage. The systems here were designed to let stormwater drain into the ocean when it rains. Because homes and gardens are higher than the crown of the road, the streets flood first in a storm, by design. Water runs into the storm drain and is piped into the ocean or waterways that lead there.

At least, that’s what is supposed to happen. With sea levels now often higher than the exits to the run-off pipes, saltwater is instead running up through the system and into the streets. To make matters worse, when the sea gets even higher, it can breach the seawall, flood people’s yards and flow down to the road – where it stays.

This outfall shows a common issue

This outfall shows a common issue: right now, it is lower than the water level, meaning it can’t drain (Credit: Amanda Ruggeri)

Since 2013, Fort Lauderdale has been installing tidal valves to deal with the problem. Each of the one-way valves, which allows stormwater through but not saltwater, looks like a big rubber tube and can be attached inside the storm drains. Gassman pulls one out to show me. “If you stick your hand in there and push a little bit, see how it opens?” I do. “Right there, you were fresh water. Now you’re about to be salt water.” She flips the valve around. I push: sure enough, it’s a no-go.

In some areas, the valves alone have been enough. But there’s a catch: the floodwater still can’t leave if the tide is above the level of the outflow pipes. That happened early on at one of the first places they installed a valve, Gassman says. A king tide came over the tops of the seawalls, flooded the street – and then remained higher than the outfall. “The valve wouldn’t open. So the roads stayed flooded 24/7,” she says. “We have had complaints that the valves aren’t working. But no. The valves are working.”

As these workers show, each valve comes with more of an expense

As these workers show, each valve comes with more of an expense than its purchase price; it also needs to be regularly inspected and maintained (Credit: Amanda Ruggeri)

Despite the limitations of the valves, it doesn’t take an engineer to figure out that raising seawalls would fix flooding that resulted from high sea levels, if not from rain. But until recently, Fort Lauderdale had a height requirement for seawalls that was a maximum, not a minimum – for aesthetic reasons. Though some now do specify a minimum height, enforcement remains difficult. A new seawall runs from $600 to $2,000 for a linear foot; adding a 12in (30cm) cap costs about $60 per foot. For the average homeowner, a seawall measures 75-100ft (23-30m). “How are you going to force everyone to put in money?” asks Gassman.

It turns out you can’t, at least for now. Last year, Fort Lauderdale proposed that everyone should be made to raise their seawalls to a certain height by 2035. Thanks to opposition from the public, the proposal failed. Instead, property owners are required to keep their seawalls in a state of good repair. Someone can be reported to the authorities if their seawall is breached by the tide, but the specific new height requirement only kicks in if someone came to ask for the permit – which is required to do significant repairs, or to build a new wall. And Fort Lauderdale makes an interesting test case: if costs seem prohibitive in this relatively well-off area, it’s not going to work in south Florida’s less affluent communities – some of which also are suffering from similar flooding.

Despite Fort Lauderdale’s best efforts, seawalls here remain a patchwork of heights and states of repair. At Cordova Road, Gassman and I look over the finger isles pointing into the Stranahan River. Across the road from the marina, one house has bright-green grass: it’s new, put down after a flood last spring swamped their property with salt water.

Gassman points to an older house on the corner. Their seawall is about a foot lower than their neighbour’s. “That foot of difference allows water to run over their property and flood the road,” she says. “That one property, if we could fix that seawall, we could reduce a lot of flooding, right here.”

Fort Lauderdale

With its varying seawall heights, new decks and bridge, this corner of Fort Lauderdale shows the domino effect of changing one piece of infrastructure (Credit: Amanda Ruggeri)

It’s not just residents who need to make changes. The city also owns a seawall along this stretch; it, too, was breached recently. Replacing the nearly half-mile stretch could cost up to $5 million. But getting the funds is just the first challenge. The end of the seawall meets a bridge. If you raise the seawall two more feet, what do you do with that bridge to protect it? And what about the docks that residents are currently allowed to have here, all of which will have to be re-done? “The people that live here want a solution and they want it now,” says Gassman. “But there’s both a public and a private cost. And changing one piece of infrastructure starts to domino into needing to change all sorts of things.”

As well as seawalls, cities are investing in pumps. Many have put pump stations in the worst-hit neighbourhoods. But only Miami Beach has adopted an integrated, major pumping system as part of an aggressive overall defence strategy. Starting in 2013, the programme – which Torriente estimates will cost between $400 and $500 million – is multi-pronged. Pump stations have sprouted across Sunset Harbour, an industrial-turned-hip neighbourhood on the barrier island’s bay side, and are moving south.

A maintenance worker repairs one of the pump stations in Sunset Harbour

A maintenance worker repairs one of the pump stations in Sunset Harbour, the first neighbourhood in Miami Beach to launch the city’s defence strategy (Credit: Amanda Ruggeri)

Roads are being raised, too, sometimes by up to 2ft (61cm), to an elevation which the Southeast Florida Climate Compact’s projections put as a likely sea level height around 2065. Seawalls are being raised to a new minimum – something that residents in Miami Beach were more amenable to than in Fort Lauderdale. The city also is requiring that all new properties build their first floor higher.

One of the roads in Miami Beach being raised

One of the roads in Miami Beach being raised by about 2ft (Credit: Amanda Ruggeri)

It’s an ambitious agenda. And it’s one that’s working. Areas where roads have been raised and pumps installed have been much drier. But, as Gassman noted, it’s not enough to change one piece of infrastructure without changing everything else. In this case, what happens when you raise a road without raising all of the properties around it? Water can go into the properties.

When Miami Beach raised its roads

When Miami Beach raised its roads, a number of businesses, like the restaurant shown here, found themselves below street level (Credit: Amanda Ruggeri)

Miami Beach’s efforts are the most aggressive. But resilience also can be built into existing projects. A lot of public infrastructure is built to last for at least 50 or 75 years, and that means planning for what the world will look like then. This is where the Compact’s range of scenarios comes in handy. If you’re laying down something easily replaceable, like a sidewalk, you could build for one of the more optimistic scenarios. An airport? It’s a good idea to go for a higher-risk scenario.

Murley, the chief resilience officer of Miami-Dade County (the county’s first), points to a 4,200ft-long (1280m) tunnel that runs from the Port of Miami to highway I395. Opened in 2014, its main objective was to re-route lorries that previously went through downtown Miami. But the tunnel was also given a huge gate that, in a hurricane, drops down to seal it at both ends. “That’s an example of resilience. We wouldn’t have built that 10 years ago,” says Murley. “We would have built the tunnel, but it would have had an open front. We might have had sand bags.”

A larger-scale example of built-in resilience is going on at the Central District Wastewater and Treatment Plant on Virginia Key, a barrier island where Biscayne Bay and the ocean meet, just east of downtown Miami. It is one of three wastewater treatment plants run by the largest utility in Florida, which serves 2.3 million of the county’s 2.6 million residents. Like the other two, it sits right by the water.

One of many aspects of south Florida’s infrastructure

The Central District Wastewater and Treatment Plant is one of many aspects of south Florida’s infrastructure which is vulnerable to rising seas (Credit: Amanda Ruggeri)

The plant already had a $500 million project on the go, making changes to comply with new Clean Water Act requirements. But because parts of the facility are expected to last 75 years or more, resilience to higher sea levels and storm surge has been baked into the design. Analysts ran what would be needed in a worst-case scenario: a category five hurricane during a king tide, with maximum rainfall. “What the results told us was that we ought to be building stuff at 17-20ft (5-6m) above sea level on the coast. Our current facilities, by and large, range from 10-15ft (3-4.5m),” says Doug Yoder, deputy director of Miami-Dade’s water and sewer department. The new design standards prioritise building at those elevations first for parts of the plants that convey flow – like the electrical wiring and pumps. “At least we won’t have raw sewage flooding the streets,” says Yoder.

The new chlorine building, currently under construction

The new chlorine building, currently under construction, is designed to start at 16ft (4.8m) above ground level (Credit: Amanda Ruggeri)

Private developers will need to think about these issues, too. According to the non-partisan research organisation Risky Business, current projections put between $15 billion and $23 billion of existing Florida property underwater by 2050. By the end of the century, that leaps to between $53 and $208 billion.

Cranes are at work and buildings under construction in Brickell

Cranes are at work and buildings under construction in Brickell, a trendy corner of Miami just over the water from the heart of downtown (Credit: Amanda Ruggeri)

Until regulations enforce common building standards, few private developers are likely to adopt resilient designs. “I think it’s very hard for a developer or builder to do something the code or government doesn’t require in their zoning or building code,” says Wayne Pathman, a Miami-based land use and zoning attorney and the chairman of the new City of Miami Sea Level Rise committee.

The $1 billion Brickell City Centre is one of Miami’s many buildings to go up

The $1 billion Brickell City Centre is one of Miami’s many buildings to go up in recent months (Credit: Amanda Ruggeri)

One exception is Brickell City Centre, a $1 billion, 9-acre complex of stores, restaurants, offices, condominiums and hotel in Brickell, a corner of downtown Miami filled with cranes and skyscrapers. Developed by Hong Kong-based Swire Properties, the complex is sleek and airy – and, says Chris Gandolfo, vice president of development for Swire’s US operations, resilient. “Starting years ago, Swire was progressive in its thinking on rising tides,” he says.

Gandolfo ticks off some of the adaptation strategies that were used: building higher than the current flood plain; flood gates that can seal off the underground car park; an elevated seawall. It also has sustainable features like green roofs, native plants and what the developers have dubbed a “climate ribbon” – a walkway that captures the bay winds to cool the structure and lower energy costs, and works as a cistern to re-use rainwater for irrigation. “We may not make immediate returns,” Gandolfo says. “But I think it’ll have long-term returns.”

As well as sleek and airy, developers say that Brickell City Centre is resilient

As well as sleek and airy, developers say that Brickell City Centre is resilient (Credit: Amanda Ruggeri)

All of this puts a catch-22 at the heart of south Florida’s development. The state levies no personal or business income taxes and has a low corporate income tax, meaning property taxes provide a major source of revenue. But unless it is managed very carefully, new development brings new challenges.

“Every one of these buildings that goes up expands your vulnerability and magnitude of risk,” says Kreeger. “On the flip side, you’re not getting help from the state, because the state legislature and governor are in total denial about climate change. So you’re bringing in money today which is going to help you. But you’re also bringing a bigger problem tomorrow.”

Part of the reason is that the issue was being ignored by so many others. Most officials say that the Compact, signed in 2010, has been a major driver in helping local governments collect the data they need and coordinate together on what to do about it – and it was signed after the realisation that, despite concrete problems that had to be solved today, state, federal and international governments weren’t doing what was needed to address them.

The Florida governor is a climate change sceptic and has directed attention away from the issue. Former employees have said they even were told not to utter the phrase “climate change”. Ignoring the issue now appears to pervade the highest levels of US government: the new Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) chief doubts whether carbon dioxide plays a primary role in climate change, while President Trump recently signed an executive order overturning emissions-slashing regulations. Draft versions of the White House budget propose cutting the EPA budget by 31% and employee numbers by 20%, as well as steep cuts to Noaa – including 26% of the funds from its Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research and entirely eliminating the Sea Grant programme, whose Florida section brings together 17 different universities to study sea level rise challenges and solutions.

This part of Hollywood, which sits on the city’s North Lake

In the North Lake neighbourhood of Hollywood, which experiences frequent flooding, a berm has been built (at right) to try to protect the houses (at left) (Credit: Amanda Ruggeri)

Local governments are forging on, but such circumstances make the challenge even greater. With budgets that run in the tens of millions, not billions, local governments already need to be fiscally creative. Meanwhile, planning depends on up-to-date data – there’s no point in raising seawalls if you don’t know how high they need to be. And some of the most reliable projection scenarios, as well as sea level rise data, is gathered from Noaa.

Yet the impact from these changes won’t stop at party lines. Even President Trump’s family isn’t immune. Three feet of sea level rise – which the range of predictions put together by Compact estimates is likely to happen within the next 60 years – will flood Trump’s Mar-a-Lago estate in Palm Beach.

“It doesn’t matter if you’re a Democrat or Republican commissioner when a neighbour calls you and tells you that their lawn is flooded,” says Gassman. “The water doesn’t care about politics. The water goes where the water goes. And someone who has a flooding problem that’s impacting their quality of life or their property values, they don’t care what flavour their politician is. What they care about is that the city is thinking about it, and that they’re planning to do something about it.”

Some of the communities in south Florida doing the most to adapt to the effects of sea level rise are doing so largely because of public pressure. In 1993, Miami-Dade put together its first plan to reduce carbon emissions. Hardly anyone came out for the committee hearing, Yoder says. Fast-forward to 2015: a hearing on the county’s budget was dominated by one resident after another asking why the county wasn’t doing more about sea level rise.

So much so, in fact, that the county decided to hire Murley, its first resilience officer. One of his immediate tasks was to look into getting onto the Rockefeller Foundation’s 100 Resilient Citiesprogramme. Accepted cities receive funding and tailored guidance on how to make themselves adaptable to future challenges, from high unemployment to earthquakes and sea-level rise.

Greater Miami is just at the start of the process, Murley says. But he’s not the only one hoping that the resources made available will help guide the area far into the future. When I try to get in touch with the commissioners or mayor of Sunny Isles, I get a call back from Brian Andrews, a crisis PR consultant. He says sea level rise is something the city is aware of, but that “we’re waiting for the county” to gather data and send guidelines for an action plan. “They’re getting millions and millions from the Rockefeller Foundation for this,” he says. “We’re a little city. We couldn’t do it on our own.”

Some property owners have taken matters into their own hands

Some property owners have taken matters into their own hands: this house was built on a raised pad, as you can see from the four steps up to the door (Credit: Amanda Ruggeri)

Despite how awareness of the issue has grown in some communities – particularly those, like Miami Beach and Fort Lauderdale, that have seen the most flooding – it’s still common for sea-level rise to get shunted to the end of the list of priorities. “As an elected official, when I go knock on doors, resiliency and sea level rise is never discussed,” says Esteban Bovo, chair of the Miami-Dade County Commission. “It’s never talked about. It’s crime, how much we’re going to invest in police, how much we’re going to invest in traffic, how much we’re going to invest in public safety, libraries – those are the topics of conversation.”   *
Later, I find myself playing with the Noaa sea-level tool again. I zoom in on Sunny Isles. At 1ft, the low-lying mangrove swamps of the Oleta River State Park, just over the water, are submerged and the wooded backyard of the Intracoastal Yacht Club disappears. At 2ft, the St Tropez Condominiums and the newly-built Town Center Park are underwater, as are many shops around 172nd Street. At 3ft, things start to get serious. Blue blots out the entire shopping plaza and the Epicure Market. At 4ft, the entire west side of Sunny Isles is uninhabitable. At 6ft, it’s gone. Only the spine near the beach – where my father lives – remains.

Adaptation strategies like those being undertaken in Miami Beach are just one part

Adaptation strategies like those being undertaken in Miami Beach are just one part of the solution (Credit: Amanda Ruggeri)

It’s easy to look at Compact’s range of estimates and think that, since a 3ft or 4ft rise may remain fairly far off, everything will be fine for a few more generations. But it’s not. With public infrastructure – from fresh water to flushing toilets to roads – woven between communities, if just one area gets affected, others may suffer. Meanwhile, resilience is only one piece. As shown by the Compact chart’s steep orange line, if emissions continue to rise, adaptation will become increasingly difficult – if not impossible. And unlike raising seawalls or installing tidal valves, that, of course, can’t be controlled by a community or region alone. “Climate change mitigation to reduce greenhouse gases is a global issue and has to be dealt with globally,” says Gassman. “Adaptation to the inevitable effects of climate change is a local issue.”

Later, peering out the window as my plane takes off over Miami, I no longer see the dense green squares of the city’s western edge, the sharp skyscrapers downtown and the surprisingly slender line of barrier islands. Instead, I see what might be lost. From here, the ocean looks vast.

But as the plane climbs, I remind myself that human innovation was enough to drain the swamp and make Florida what it is today. It was great enough to get me here, 15,000ft in the air. And it just might be enough to save what I see below.

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To all my blogging friends out there, I want you to know what an inspiration you’ve been to me while I’ve been recuperating from surgery for the past several months.  Forced to be patient while my body recovered, I was restricted to reading a few books, watching TV and having a few massages thrown in for good measure, to help me through the healing process.

The only options left were a stroll once a day (and make that outdoors please, not on a treadmill as per my doctor’s orders)  between heavy doses of pain medication.  Thank goodness for escape provided by HBO On Demand and Hoopla via my local library service.  When a desperate wave of nostalgia kicked in, I reacted by seeking out titles I had long forgotten, such as “Three Coins in a Fountain”  “Casablanca”and that good old Frank Sinatra classic, “The Man with the Golden Arm.”   In the early days of my recovery, I indulged in some romance titles like Debbie Macomber’s, “Inn at Rose Harbor,” Harper Lee’s “Go Set A Watchman”, as well as an older mystery by Stuart Woods, “Dark Harbor.” Stuart Woods writing is entertaining and light, and a quick read.  Since his mysteries are centered in Florida, I find them very relatable.  Eventually, I was able to concentrate for longer periods and could graduate to more serious titles like “Night” by Elie Wiesel, and  “The New Jim Crow” by Michelle Alexander.  The latter deals with some serious questions concerning the topic of mass incarceration, and what we need to do to avoid it in the first place.  Not to be forgotten was  “When Breath Becomes Air” by Paul Kalanithi & Abraham Verghese – a very touching memoir and bio.  “River of Doubt- Theodore Roosevelt’s Darkest Journey” by Candice Millard was a suspenseful account of one of Roosevelt’s sojourns, which almost cost him his life.  There are other titles that I devoured, but I’ve chosen these as I consider them the more memorable and worthy of recommendation.

I knew I was  fully functional  when I was able to drive to the movies and see “La La Land” & “Moonlight,” on the large screen.  Both nominated for Academy Awards and well done artistically.  I’ve also returned to attending the Author’s Workshops I enjoy so much and will share some interesting reviews in another post.

While I missed participating with my blogging community immensely,  it was always a joy to be able to read the varied and creative content that you posted during that time.  When all I could do was lay in bed and read, you reminded me that I could still dream and experience faraway places and a broad range of ideas, without having to be there physically.   Thanks, and please keep writing.  You never know what a difference your perspective is making in someone else’s life.  Especially you masterfuly lyrical poets!



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